16 Roles of HRM (Human Resource Management) And The Top Functions

16 Roles of HRM (Human Resource Management) And The Top Functions

Written By : Bakkah

15 Jan 2024

Table of Content

Human resource management employs a comprehensive approach to managing an organization’s most valuable asset, its workforce. The role of the HR department encompasses all issues related to people such as hiring, training, compensation, wellness, benefits, communication, administration, and safety.

Definition of Role of HRM:

The roles of Human Resource Management (HRM) encompass a range of responsibilities and functions aimed at effectively managing an organization's human capital. Human Resource Management (HRM) plays a crucial role in managing an organization's most valuable asset—its people. The roles and functions of HRM are diverse and cover various aspects of the employee lifecycle and organizational development. 

The roles of HRM collectively contribute to the effective management of an organization's human capital, ensuring that the workforce is aligned with the company's strategic objectives and operates in a manner that promotes productivity, satisfaction, and organizational success.

What are the Roles and Functions of Human Resource Management?

Human resource management (HRM) involves the management of an organization’s workforce to achieve business objectives. This includes fulfilling the organization’s staffing needs and maintaining ideal workplace conditions.

The HR department accomplishes this by utilizing HR strategies and procedures that focus on the organization's personnel. To achieve its objectives, human resource management uses several disciplines, including psychology, business management, analytics, and sociology.

Role 1: Recruitment and Hiring

Recruitment and Hiring is perhaps the most popular role associated with human resource managers. It involves finding, reviewing credentials, screening, and selecting candidates for a company. An effective recruitment process results in the hiring of employees who are tailor-fit for the position and not just candidates who have the best credentials. HRM is responsible for identifying workforce needs, sourcing potential candidates, conducting interviews, and selecting the right individuals to fill vacant positions. This role involves ensuring a match between the skills and qualifications of candidates and the requirements of the job.

Popular Recruitment Methods

An HR manager can employ a variety of recruitment methods to cast a broader net to lure potential candidates. These methods include:

  • Employee referrals
  • Advertising on social networking sites (LinkedIn, Facebook)
  • Dedicated online job portal
  • Participate in job fairs (community, organizations, universities, colleges)
  • Post job openings on online job boards
  • Advertising in print media (newspapers, magazines)
  • Working with or outsourcing recruitment services to a dedicated recruitment company

Role 2: Training Employees

HRM is involved in identifying training needs, designing and delivering training programs, and supporting continuous development initiatives. This role aims to ensure that employees have the necessary skills and competencies to perform their roles effectively and contribute to organizational success.

Even with the most experienced candidate, joining a new company requires training. The purpose of employee training is to equip them with the necessary skills and knowledge to perform their role effectively. Employers must be prepared to commit a significant amount of investment in their employee's training. This is not only beneficial for the company but also helps in the employee's self-development.

The quality of training provided goes a long way in retaining employees. When employees feel that they can grow, they are more likely to stay in their jobs. The opportunity for employees to enhance their skills improves overall satisfaction and morale.

Role 3: Organization Development

Organizational development is the process in which an organization implements a plan to improve its current workforce to meet its current and projected requirements. It involves increasing organization effectiveness by improving processes and systems. Organizational development plays a vital role in strengthening the existing workforce, enhancing its effectiveness, and promoting positive workplace conditions.

Role 4: Workplace environment

Human resources play a critical role in managing the workplace environment. They are the first responders for any workplace-related issues among employees. Effective communication makes it easier for employees to work for a single objective, the company's success. It is the role of the human resource department to promote better communication among individuals in the company.

Role 5: Employee Information and Benefits

Human resource managers are involved in disseminating information on employee benefits, assistance programs, and leaves of absence. This information is usually included in the HR manual. Human resource managers are tasked with orienting new employees about the several benefits offered by the company. They also play a role during employee benefit disputes.

Role 6: Managerial and Operational Responsibilities

More than just hiring new employees, HR managers are also involved in managerial and operational responsibilities. To be an effective human resource managers, they must also perform leadership roles in the ongoing training of employees and maintain a solid understanding of the company’s brand and objectives. A good HR strategy also employs manpower planning, hiring, and promotion as part of their managerial and operational responsibilities.

Role 7: HR Managers Are Advisors to the different departments

The human resource manager should be able to function as an advisor to the different departments on matters related to human resources. This includes working with the department head in formulating policies and procedures.

First and foremost, HR managers must give expert advice on how to create stronger employee relationship and morale. 

Role 8: Aligning human resources to current and projected needs

Human resource strategies also include aligning human resources to current and projected needs. This is to maintain the company's competitive advantage and enable it to respond more quickly to changing customer needs. 

Role 9: The role of human resource management in managing organizational change

Human resource management plays a critical role in managing organizational change. Change is constant, even in business. To ensure continued success, a company must be able to adapt to shifting markets and customer needs.

This is only possible when management is able to communicate its objectives with employees effectively. Human resource management makes this possible by creating an environment where team members can freely communicate thoughts and ideas, especially during periods of change.

Role 10: Strategic Management:

Align HR strategies with organizational goals. HRM plays a pivotal role in formulating and executing strategies that contribute to the achievement of organizational objectives. 

This involves understanding the business environment, anticipating future challenges, and ensuring that the workforce is equipped with the necessary skills and capabilities to support the company's strategic direction.

Role 11: Performance Management:

Evaluate and enhance employee performance. HRM is responsible for establishing performance standards, conducting regular performance appraisals, and providing feedback to employees.

This role involves creating a performance-driven culture, setting goals, and implementing processes to recognize and reward high performance while addressing performance issues.

Role 12: Employee Relations and Engagement:

Maintain positive relationships within the organization. HRM plays a key role in managing employee relations, addressing workplace conflicts, and fostering a positive work environment. 

This involves creating policies that support fairness, equality, and a positive workplace culture. Additionally, HRM is responsible for implementing initiatives to enhance employee engagement, job satisfaction, and overall well-being.

Role 13: Workforce Planning:

Anticipate and plan for future workforce needs. HRM engages in analyzing current workforce trends, assessing skills gaps, and forecasting future staffing requirements. By understanding the organization's strategic goals, HRM develops strategies to ensure that the right people with the right skills are available when needed.

Role 14: Talent Management and Succession Planning:

Identify, develop, and retain key talent within the organization. HRM plays a crucial role in identifying high-potential employees, developing their skills, and implementing succession plans to ensure a smooth transition in leadership positions. 

Talent management involves creating career development paths and providing opportunities for growth within the organization.

Role 15: Employee Well-being and Work-Life Balance:

Support the overall well-being and work-life balance of employees. HRM is involved in implementing programs and policies that prioritize employee well-being, mental health, and work-life balance. 

This includes initiatives such as flexible work arrangements, wellness programs, and employee assistance programs.

Role 16: HR Technology Management:

Implement and leverage technology to enhance HR processes. HRM is responsible for adopting and managing Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) and other technologies to streamline HR processes. 

This role involves selecting, implementing, and maintaining technology solutions that support HR functions such as payroll, benefits administration, and talent management.

Difference between Roles and functions of HRM:

Roles or HRM provide a high-level view of the areas where HR professionals contribute to the organization, while functions of HRM break down these contributions into specific tasks or activities. Both roles and functions are essential for understanding the comprehensive nature of HRM within an organization. The roles guide HR professionals in their overall approach and mindset, while the functions outline the day-to-day tasks and responsibilities that support the fulfillment of those roles.

What is the Role of the HR Manager?

Today’s HR manager must be able to wear multiple hats. Human Resource Management roles include being able to function as an employee advocate, strategic planner, and change manager. HR manager works with the different managers in the research, planning, training, and development of workforce culture to ensure the successful delivery of the business strategy. Here are the best roles of human resource management in Businesses:

The responsibility of an HR manager is enormous; he runs the gamut in almost every aspect of a company's day-to-day operations.  Roles include supervising and leading tasks that oversee all the elements associated with maintaining a productive workforce. 

The human resource manager must lead efforts toward organization development. They play a significant role in developing a workplace culture that improves productivity and customer service. Human resource professionals are involved in developing the skill of managers and organizations. This has led to the creation of even more roles for HR managers, making them vital members of any company.

These are just some of the answers to the question of, what a human resource manager does.

What Is The Importance Of Human Resource Management?

Human Resource Management is one of the critical departments for the business because it focuses on the workforce. One of the most valuable assets of a company or organization is its workforce. It is a living, breathing resource that needs to be continuously managed to function effectively.

The human resource department goes beyond the hiring process. It plays a crucial role in the day-to-day operations of a company. The importance of human resource management can only be quantified by the success of an organization.

1. Human Resource Management Improves Productivity

Productivity starts with having the right people for the right job. One of the critical roles of human resource personnel is to seek and hire the best employees. This isn’t just about hiring the people with the best academic background but identifying the individual who possesses the right skill, knowledge, and attitude for the job.

Human resources departments are not only involved with recruiting and interviewing candidates, but these professionals also employ an HR strategy that goes beyond numbers such as years of experience, age, or test scores. They pick the perfect candidate by first setting standards and selecting only those who fit the job requirement.

However, to be able to select the best people, human resources departments must be able to attract the best candidates. And this is where a professional HR manager comes in. Aside from creating a job posting, they are also able to provide a hiring package that includes attractive work benefits that are designed to lure motivated, productive applicants.

2. Human Resource Management Improves Employee Retention

Even after hiring the best candidates, the business still has to spend a considerable amount of its resources training these new employees. Nobody hits the ground running. New employees must spend time familiarizing themselves with the company’s policies and work procedures to become productive members. Human resource management does not end with the hiring process. It is also involved with another essential task of retaining valuable members of the workforce.

3. Human Resource Management Improves Brand Recognition

The best companies attract the best people. With a strong brand, the task of hiring and retaining the right people is half the job done. Human resource personnel is tasked with keeping the workforce happy. Brands become recognizable not only because they have the best product but also because they are the best places to work.

4. Human Resource Management Empowers Intellectual and Financial Success

The task of human resource personnel includes maintaining and improving workforce capabilities. This is something that can be delegated or automated. It requires a keen insight into the company's business strategy and available resources.

Depending on a company's needs, HR strategy can include training and maximizing employee performance for its short-term and long-term objectives. Human resource management can also conduct reorganizing existing processes to improve workflow and efficiency. All these can only be executed with the help of experienced, trained, and professional human resource personnel.

How to Create a Human Resource Strategy:

HR strategy is a long-term plan that focuses on workforce planning and development. This goes beyond traditional HR functions that are mainly involved in reviewing candidates, creating a census, and signing up employees for benefits. HR strategy is more forward-looking and involves aligning employee qualifications with the company's workforce needs.

This type of human resource management is involved preparing, training, and developing the workforce for personal growth. Creating an HR strategy must include the participation of management to create a more comprehensive approach to workforce development.

Step 1: Planning is the first step in developing an HR strategy.

HR planning plays an essential role in the development of an effective HR strategy. It guarantees that job candidates provide a good fit for available job openings. HR strategy helps avoid personnel surpluses or shortages in the workforce. Human resource planning includes analyzing the current workforce, projecting demands, and balancing the available workforce with current demand.

Step 2: Create programs to deliver on the designated objectives.

After establishing the different objectives and plans, the next step is to organize the various tasks to achieve them. The HR manager sets out to design and creates programs to deliver on the designated objectives. This involves organizing activities, assigning tasks, and coordinating all related activities.

Step 3: Offer a variety of benefits

HR managers provide direction, encouraging people to work effectively and efficiently to achieve the objectives of the company. This is done by overseeing all tasks and processes in the HR plan. HR managers can offer a variety of benefits, up training opportunities, and improve current work conditions to provide motivation.

Step 4: Outlining The Expected Outcomes

This involves observing and comparing results with expected outcomes and correcting any deviations. In this step, HR managers perform appraisals and examine records, statistics, and audits.

Human Resource Department Operations

The HR department is responsible for many of the company’s day-to-day administrative operations. This runs from hiring of new employees to settling workplace disputes. Below are some of the most important functions of the HR department.

1. Procurement of new employees

Hiring new employees is one of the most crucial responsibilities of the human resource department. This process usually involves:

  • Job Analysis – identifying current and projected job needs. This enables the company to employ a hiring strategy that targets the necessary candidates to meet these needs.
  • Recruitment – this is the hiring process in action. To attract the right candidate, human resource managers may employ several mediums such as print media, online job sites, referrals, or recruiting within the organization.
  • Selecting – candidates are then screened initially through an interview followed by tests to measure their competency.
  • Placement – the stage in the procurement process where the selected candidate is extended an offer.
  • Onboarding – as the candidate accepts the offer and becomes a formal employee, the HR staff then proceeds with orienting them with company policies and benefits.
  • Transfers and Promotion – filling a position can be done by hiring within the organization. Companies that provide career growth opportunities are more likely to retain their workforce.

2. Employee Development

  • Performance Appraisal – constant checks are done to assess how an individual employee is performing. Depending on the result, a manager can create a plan to improve performance or recommend changes to work procedures.
  • Training – the introduction of new work procedures or new equipment require uptraining. Training can be delivered in-house or by letting employees join seminars or classes.
  • Career Planning – human resource managers also create career pathways that provide growth opportunities for employees.

3. Compensation and Benefits:

Develop and administer fair and competitive compensation packages. HRM is responsible for designing and implementing compensation structures, including salary, bonuses, and benefits. This involves conducting salary surveys, ensuring compliance with legal regulations, and creating incentive programs to attract and retain top talent.

  • Evaluation – this involves determining compensation based on current living costs, healthcare, and taxes.
  • Salary and Wages – salaries can be based on hourly, daily, weekly, or monthly payments. Employee salaries can include payments plus benefits such as paid vacation leaves, housing, travel, and other privileges.
  • Bonuses and Incentives – these are benefits above and beyond standard salaries and wages. Bonuses can be rewards to employees who show outstanding performance. Incentives are given to employees who exceed specific goals and objectives. The conditions for bonuses and incentives can be communicated during orientation or before a project formally starts.
  • Payroll – another important function performed by the human resource department. A payroll contains a list of all the employees, the amount of salary, and benefits due if any.

4. Integration

This refers to the role that the human resource department performs in day-to-day company operations.

  • Communication and dispute management– the tasks of the HR department include facilitating smooth communication between the staff and management. When things do not go smoothly, the human resource department can implement several options, including meditation, training, counseling, and developing new procedures for enhanced communication.
  • Motivation – to ensure optimum performance, companies must provide a sense of motivation for its employees. This includes providing benefits and incentives and promotion opportunities.
  • Discipline – necessary for maintaining a smooth working atmosphere. The HR department can be tasked with implementing disciplinary actions for common infractions. These can include dress code violations, discrimination, harassment, and other similar infractions of company policies.

Training And Certificates of Human Resource Management:

Here are the best certified HR Courses and certificates:


Bakkah Learning Team!