Types of Project Management Across Industries And Categories With Examples

Types of Project Management Across Industries And Categories With Examples

Written By : Bakkah

3 Jun 2024

Table of Content

Discover a comprehensive overview of types of project management, encompassing various methodologies, terminologies, industries, lifecycle stages, approaches, organizational structures, complexities, and types of project managers.

Examples are provided for industries spanning construction, IT, healthcare, manufacturing, finance, engineering, telecommunications, and energy, with methodologies tailored to each sector's specific needs.

Furthermore, the article explores project management frameworks across different organizational structures, complexities, and types of projects, highlighting the diverse roles and specializations available to project managers.

Types of Project Management Terminology 

Project Management terminology encompasses a wide range of terms and concepts used to describe the processes, techniques, and best practices involved in managing projects effectively. These terms help project managers communicate clearly with team members, stakeholders, and other project participants, ensuring everyone understands their roles, responsibilities, and project objectives.

Common project management terminology includes terms related to project initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and controlling, and closure phases. Examples include Project Charter, Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), Critical Path, Gantt Chart, Stakeholder Analysis, Risk Management Plan, Change Control, and Lessons Learned.

Types and Categories of Project Management 

Project management can be categorized into several types based on various criteria. Here are some common categorizations:

1. Types of Project Management across Industries 

Project management methodologies are adaptable across various industries, each with its own specific needs and requirements. Here are some common types of project management methodologies applied across different industries:

1. Construction Industry:

  • Critical Path Method (CPM)
  • Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
  • Lean Construction Management
  • Design-Bid-Build (DBB)
  • Design-Build (DB)
  • Integrated Project Delivery (IPD)

2. Information Technology (IT) Industry:

  • Agile (Scrum, Kanban, XP)
  • Waterfall
  • DevOps
  • Rapid Application Development (RAD)
  • ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library)

3. Healthcare Industry:

  • Lean Healthcare
  • Six Sigma
  • Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model
  • Value-Based Healthcare
  • Electronic Health Records (EHR) implementation methodologies

4. Manufacturing Industry:

  • Lean Manufacturing
  • Six Sigma
  • Total Quality Management (TQM)
  • Just-In-Time (JIT)
  • Theory of Constraints (TOC)
  • Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)

5. Financial Industry:

  • Agile (Adapted for software development in financial services)
  • Waterfall
  • Risk Management methodologies
  • Compliance-driven project management
  • Investment project management

6. Engineering Industry:

  • Systems Engineering
  • Concurrent Engineering
  • Design-Build-Operate-Maintain (DBOM)
  • Value Engineering
  • Front End Loading (FEL)

7. Telecommunications Industry:

  • Agile (Scrum, Kanban)
  • Waterfall
  • Telecommunications Project Management (TPM)
  • IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) adapted for telecommunications

8. Energy Industry:

  • Project Management for the Oil and Gas Industry
  • Renewable Energy Project Management
  • Nuclear Power Plant Project Management
  • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) project management
  • These are just a few examples, and many industries adapt or combine various project management methodologies to suit their specific needs, regulatory requirements, and project complexities.

Read also, Project Management Strategies.

2. Types of project management across the Project Lifecycle: 

Project management methodologies can be applied across the project lifecycle stages, each emphasizing different aspects of project execution. Here are the types of project management methodologies across the project lifecycle:

1. Initiation Phase:

  • PRINCE2 (Projects in Controlled Environments): Provides a structured approach to project initiation, emphasizing a clear definition of project objectives, roles, and responsibilities.
  • Project Charter Approach: Focuses on creating a project charter that outlines the project's purpose, scope, objectives, and initial stakeholders.

2. Planning Phase:

  • Waterfall Methodology: Sequentially plans each phase of the project in detail before moving to the next phase.
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Approach: Breaks down the project into smaller, manageable tasks to facilitate planning and resource allocation.
  • Critical Path Method (CPM) and Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT): Utilized for scheduling and resource optimization.

3. Execution Phase:

  • Agile Methodologies (Scrum, Kanban, XP): Emphasize iterative development, continuous feedback, and adaptive planning during execution.
  • Lean Project Management: Focuses on minimizing waste and maximizing value delivery during project execution.
  • Six Sigma: Aims to improve process efficiency and quality through data-driven approaches during execution.

4. Monitoring and Controlling Phase:

  • Earned Value Management (EVM): Analyzes project performance by integrating scope, schedule, and cost measurements.
  • Risk Management: Continuously identifies, assesses, and mitigates risks throughout the project lifecycle.
  • Change Management: Manages changes to project scope, schedule, and budget while ensuring minimal disruption to project objectives.

5. Closure Phase:

  • PRINCE2: Provides guidelines for formal project closure activities, including lessons learned documentation and project handover processes.
  • Post-Implementation Review (PIR): Evaluates project outcomes, identifies successes and areas for improvement, and captures lessons learned for future projects.

These methodologies can be used individually or in combination, depending on the project's characteristics, goals, and stakeholders' preferences. Additionally, some methodologies, like Agile, are iterative and may involve elements of planning, execution, monitoring, and controlling throughout the project lifecycle.

3. Types of project management across Approach or Methodology:

Across different approaches or methodologies in project management, various frameworks and techniques are employed to achieve project goals efficiently. Here are the types of project management across approaches or methodologies:

1. Agile Project Management:

  • Scrum: Utilizes short, time-boxed iterations called sprints, with a focus on delivering potentially shippable increments of the product at the end of each sprint.
  • Kanban: Visualizes work in progress on a Kanban board, emphasizing flow and limiting work in progress to improve efficiency.
  • Extreme Programming (XP): Advocates for continuous testing, frequent releases, and close collaboration between developers and customers.

2. Waterfall Project Management:

Follows a sequential, linear approach with distinct phases such as initiation, planning, execution, monitoring, and closure. Each phase must be completed before the next one begins.

3. Lean Project Management:

Aims to eliminate waste, optimize processes, and maximize customer value by focusing on value stream mapping, continuous improvement, and just-in-time delivery.

4. Six Sigma Project Management:

Utilizes statistical tools and techniques to reduce defects and variations in processes, aiming for near-perfect quality and consistency.

5. PRINCE2 (Projects in Controlled Environments):

Provides a structured framework with defined processes and roles for project initiation, planning, execution, monitoring, and closure. Emphasizes continuous business justification and flexibility.

6. PMI's PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge):

Offers a comprehensive guide to project management practices, covering areas such as project integration, scope, time, cost, quality, human resources, communication, risk, procurement, and stakeholder management.

7. Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM):

Focuses on managing project resources effectively by identifying and protecting the critical chain of tasks, reducing multitasking and improving project flow.

8. PRISM (Projects Integrating Sustainable Methods):

Integrates sustainability principles into project management processes, considering environmental, social, and economic factors throughout the project lifecycle.

9. Hybrid Project Management:

Combines elements of different methodologies to tailor project management approaches to specific project needs. For example, blending Agile and Waterfall practices to accommodate both flexibility and structure.

10. Adaptive Project Framework (APF):

Emphasizes flexibility and adaptation to changing project requirements and conditions, with a focus on continuous learning and improvement.

These methodologies offer diverse approaches to project management, allowing organizations to select the most suitable framework based on project objectives, constraints, and stakeholders' preferences.

4. Types of Project Management across Organizational Structure:

Across different organizational structures, project management methodologies may vary to align with the organizational dynamics and culture. Here are the types of project management across organizational structures:

1. Functional Project Management:

  • Project managers have limited authority, and team members report to functional managers.
  • Emphasizes specialization and expertise within functional departments.
  • Coordination and communication between project team members may be challenging.

2. Matrix Project Management:

  • Combines aspects of functional and projectized organizational structures.
  • Project managers have varying degrees of authority depending on the type of matrix (weak, balanced, strong).
  • Team members report both to functional managers for their daily work and to project managers for project-related tasks.
  • Requires effective communication and negotiation skills to manage conflicts and priorities.

3. Projectized Project Management:

  • Project managers have full authority over the project and dedicated project teams.
  • Team members are assigned exclusively to the project for its duration.
  • Offers clear lines of authority and accountability, facilitating efficient decision-making.
  • Promotes a project-focused culture with a strong sense of ownership and commitment.

4. Composite Organizational Structure:

  • Combines elements of functional, matrix, and projectized structures based on project requirements.
  • Allows organizations to adapt project management approaches to different projects or phases within the same organization.
  • Offers flexibility while leveraging the strengths of various organizational structures.

5. Virtual Project Management:

  • Manages projects with team members located remotely or across different geographical locations.
  • Relies heavily on virtual communication tools and technologies to facilitate collaboration.
  • Requires strong leadership and communication skills to overcome challenges related to distance and cultural differences.

6. Network Organization:

  • Projects are managed through collaboration among multiple organizations or entities.
  • Involves coordination of resources and efforts across organizational boundaries.
  • Requires effective governance mechanisms and contractual agreements to ensure alignment of interests and objectives.

7. Holacratic Project Management:

  • Emphasizes self-organization and distributed decision-making within project teams.
  • Decentralizes authority and promotes autonomy among team members.
  • Requires a high level of trust and alignment with organizational values and principles.
  • Each organizational structure has its advantages and challenges, and project management methodologies should be adapted to fit the specific context and needs of the organization and its projects.
  • Effective project management requires aligning the chosen methodology with the organizational structure to optimize project outcomes.

5. Types of project management across By Complexity:

Project management methodologies can also be categorized based on the complexity of the projects they are designed to handle. Here are the types of project management methodologies across complexity:

1. Small-Scale Project Management:

  • Designed for managing simple projects with low levels of complexity, few stakeholders, and limited resources.
  • Emphasizes efficiency and quick delivery of project outcomes.
  • Typically involves basic planning, execution, and monitoring activities.
  • Examples include simple task management tools or lightweight project management frameworks.

2. Medium-Scale Project Management:

  • Suitable for managing projects of moderate complexity, involving multiple stakeholders and resources.
  • Requires more detailed planning and coordination compared to small-scale projects.
  • Involves managing risks, dependencies, and changes throughout the project lifecycle.
  • Examples include Agile methodologies like Scrum or Kanban, as well as traditional Waterfall approaches with moderate customization.

3. Large-Scale Project Management:

  • Designed for managing complex projects with high levels of uncertainty, numerous stakeholders, and significant resource requirements.
  • Involves extensive planning, risk management, and stakeholder engagement to ensure project success.
  • Requires robust governance structures and project controls to manage complexity effectively.
  • Examples include enterprise-level project management methodologies like PRINCE2, PMBOK, or customized hybrid approaches tailored to the specific needs of large-scale projects.

4. Mega-Scale Project Management:

  • Geared towards managing exceptionally large and complex projects with global reach, significant impact, and high levels of uncertainty.
  • Involves managing multiple interconnected projects and programs with diverse stakeholders and objectives.
  • Requires sophisticated project management practices, advanced risk management techniques, and strong leadership to navigate complexities effectively.
  • Examples include project management methodologies used in large-scale infrastructure projects, space exploration missions, or international development initiatives.

5. Mission-Critical Project Management:

  • Designed for managing projects where failure is not an option and the stakes are extremely high.
  • Involves rigorous planning, execution, and monitoring to ensure project objectives are achieved within strict constraints.

Requires specialized project management methodologies, stringent quality assurance processes, and contingency planning to mitigate risks effectively.

  • Examples include project management approaches used in industries such as aerospace, defense, healthcare, or financial services for critical system implementations or regulatory compliance initiatives.

These categorizations help organizations select the most appropriate project management methodologies based on the complexity, scale, and criticality of their projects.

Examples of types of project management 

There are a lot of examples according to categories as: 

1.  Industry 

Certainly! Here are examples of project management methodologies across various industries:

Healthcare Industry in Hospital

In healthcare, Lean improves processes and efficiency, Six Sigma enhances quality and safety, and PCMH prioritizes comprehensive, patient-centered care through teamwork and engagement, resulting in better outcomes for patients and organizations.

2. Project Lifecycle

Let's consider an example of project management across the project lifecycle using the Agile methodology, specifically the Scrum framework:

Development of a Mobile Application

The project for developing a mobile application follows the Agile Scrum methodology, beginning with the initiation phase where stakeholders identify the need and create a project charter. In the planning phase, the team defines features, creates a product backlog, and plans sprints. During execution, the team works on user stories, holding daily Scrum meetings for progress updates. In monitoring and controlling, sprint progress is tracked, and reviews and retrospectives are conducted.

3. Approach or Methodology

Certainly! Let's consider an example of a software development project managed using the Agile methodology:

Development of a new mobile application 

As the project manager for the development of a new mobile application, I will employ an Agile approach, specifically utilizing the Scrum framework. This methodology will enable our team to adapt quickly to changing requirements and deliver incremental value to our stakeholders. We will start by creating a prioritized product backlog, then plan and execute time-boxed sprints to iteratively develop and test the application features. Daily stand-up meetings will keep the team aligned and address any impediments, while sprint reviews and retrospectives will ensure continuous improvement throughout the project.

4. Organizational Structure

Certainly! Let's consider an example of project management across different organizational structures for the development of a new software product:

Development of a New Software Product

In functional project management within a functional organizational structure, coordination occurs among various departments like software development, quality assurance, and user experience design. Each department is led by its own manager, overseeing their respective areas of expertise. Collaboration between departments is vital for project success

Types of project managers

Project managers play diverse roles and can specialize in various types of projects based on their skills, experience, and preferences. Here are the types of project managers:

1. Technical Project Manager:

Specializes in managing projects with a strong technical component, such as software development, engineering, or IT infrastructure projects. Possesses technical expertise and works closely with technical teams to ensure project success.

2. Construction Project Manager:

Manages construction projects, including building construction, infrastructure development, or renovation projects. Coordinates with architects, engineers, contractors, and subcontractors to ensure projects are completed on time, within budget, and according to specifications.

3. Healthcare Project Manager:

Focuses on managing projects in the healthcare industry, such as hospital renovations, medical equipment implementations, or healthcare IT projects. Familiar with healthcare regulations, patient care requirements, and medical technology.

4. IT Project Manager:

Specializes in managing information technology projects, such as software development, system upgrades, or network infrastructure deployments. Overseas software development life cycle (SDLC) processes, coordinates with development teams, and ensures alignment with business objectives.

5. Engineering Project Manager:

Manages engineering projects, including product development, manufacturing processes, or infrastructure projects. Coordinates with design engineers, production teams, and stakeholders to deliver engineering solutions on time and within budget.

6. Marketing Project Manager:

Oversees marketing projects, such as advertising campaigns, product launches, or brand initiatives. Coordinates with marketing teams, creative agencies, and vendors to execute marketing strategies and achieve campaign objectives.

7. Event Project Manager:

Manages event planning and execution projects, including corporate events, conferences, trade shows, or special events. Coordinates with event planners, vendors, and venue staff to ensure seamless event experiences for attendees.

8. Consulting Project Manager:

Works for consulting firms and manages projects for clients across various industries, providing expertise and guidance on business initiatives, process improvements, or technology implementations.

9. Infrastructure Project Manager:

Specializes in managing large-scale infrastructure projects such as transportation systems, energy facilities, or utilities. Coordinates with engineers, contractors, government agencies, and stakeholders to deliver infrastructure projects on time and within budget.

10. Risk Management Project Manager:

Focuses on identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks throughout the project lifecycle. Implements risk management strategies and ensures that projects are resilient to potential threats and uncertainties. These are just a few examples, and project managers may specialize further based on industry, project type, or organizational needs.

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